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DevOps Interview Questions For Freshers

    What is DevOps?

    DevOps stands for Development and Operations. It is a software engineering practice that focuses on bringing together the development team and the operations team for the purpose of automating the project at every stage. This approach helps in easily automating the project service management in order to aid the objectives at the operational level and improve the understanding of the technological stack used in the production environment.

    This way of practice is related to agile methodology and it mainly focuses on team communication, resource management, and teamwork. The main benefits of following this structure are the speed of development and resolving the issues at the production environment level, the stability of applications, and the innovation involved behind it.

    1. Who is a DevOps engineer?

    A  devops engineer is a person who works with both software developers and the IT staff to ensure smooth code releases. They are generally developers who develop an interest in the deployment and operations domain or the system admins who develop a passion for coding to move towards the development side.In short, a DevOps engineer is someone who has an understanding of SDLC (Software Development Lifecycle) and of automation tools for developing CI/CD pipelines.

    2. Why DevOps has become famous?

    These days, the market window of products has reduced drastically. We see new products almost daily. This provides a myriad of choices to consumers but it comes at a cost of heavy competition in the market. Organizations cant afford to release big features after a gap. They tend to ship off small features as releases to the customers at regular intervals so that their products don’t get lost in this sea of competition.Customer satisfaction is now a motto to the organizations which has also become the goal of any product for its success. In order to achieve this, companies need to do the below things:

    • Frequent feature deployments
    • Reduce time between bug fixes
    • Reduce failure rate of releases
    • Quicker recovery time in case of release failures.
    • In order to achieve the above points and thereby achieving seamless product delivery, DevOps culture acts as a very useful tool. Due to these advantages, multi-national companies like Amazon and Google have adopted the methodology which has resulted in their increased performance.

    3. What is the use of SSH?

    SSH stands for Secure Shell and is an administrative protocol that lets users have access and control the remote servers over the Internet to work using the command line.SSH is a secured encrypted version of the previously known Telnet which was unencrypted and not secure. This ensured that the communication with the remote server occurs in an encrypted form.SSH also has a mechanism for remote user authentication, input communication between the client and the host, and sending the output back to the client.

    4. What is configuration management?

    Configuration management (CM) is basically a practice of systematic handling of the changes in such a way that system does not lose its integrity over a period of time. This involves certain policies, techniques, procedures, and tools for evaluating change proposals, managing them, and tracking their progress along with maintaining appropriate documentation for the same.CM helps in providing administrative and technical directions to the design and development of the appreciation.The following diagram gives a brief idea about what CM is all about:

    5. What is the importance of having configuration management in DevOps?

    Configuration management (CM) helps the team in the automation of time-consuming and tedious tasks thereby enhancing the organization’s performance and agility.It also helps in bringing consistency and improving the product development process by employing means of design streamlining, extensive documentation, control, and change implementation during various phases/releases of the project.

    6. What does CAMS stand for in DevOps?

    CAMS stands for Culture, Automation, Measurement, and Sharing. It represents the core deeds of DevOps.

    7. What is Continuous Integration (CI)?

    Continuous Integration (CI) is a software development practice that makes sure developers integrate their code into a shared repository as and when they are done working on the feature. Each integration is verified by means of an automated build process that allows teams to detect problems in their code at a very early stage rather than finding them after the deployment.

    Based on the above flow, we can have a brief overview of the CI process.

    • Developers regularly check out code into their local workspaces and work on the features assigned to them.
    • Once they are done working on it, the code is committed and pushed to the remote shared repository which is handled by making use of effective version control tools like git.
    • The CI server keeps track of the changes done to the shared repository and it pulls the changes as soon as it detects them.
    • The CI server then triggers the build of the code and runs unit and integration test cases if set up.
    • The team is informed of the build results. In case of the build failure, the team has to work on fixing the issue as early as possible, and then the process repeats.

    8. Why is Continuous Integration needed?

    By incorporating Continuous Integration for both development and testing, it has been found that the software quality has improved and the time taken for delivering the features of the software has drastically reduced.This also allows the development team to detect and fix errors at the initial stage as each and every commit to the shared repository is built automatically and run against the unit and integration test cases.

    9. What is Continuous Testing (CT)?

    Continuous Testing (CT) is that phase of DevOps which involves the process of running the automated test cases as part of an automated software delivery pipeline with the sole aim of getting immediate feedback regarding the quality and validation of business risks associated with the automated build of code developed by the developers.Using this phase will help the team to test each build continuously (as soon as the code developed is pushed) thereby giving the dev teams a chance to get instant feedback on their work and ensuring that these problems don’t arrive in the later stages of SDLC cycle.Doing this would drastically speed up the workflow followed by the developer to develop the project due to the lack of manual intervention steps to rebuild the project and run the automated test cases every time the changes are made.

    10. What are the three important DevOps KPIs?

    Few KPIs of DevOps are given below:

    • Reduce the average time taken to recover from a failure.
    • Increase Deployment frequency in which the deployment occurs.
    • Reduced Percentage of failed deployments.

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